SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY:-

Science and technology

Every time I am onboard an aircraft, I reflect on how technology has drastically changed our lives.Great things have happened during my life to make our lives easier.

Planes, trains and automobiles have all been invented to ease our daily needs and necessity of movement. Near miraculous medication and difficult- to-believe medical procedures are created potential as a result of technology.

The advent of engineering has opened a brand new chapter in technological advances, all to create our lives easier so we have a tendency to all will live smart lives.

Ken Funk defines technology may be a rational method of making a way to order and remodel matter, energy, and knowledge to appreciate bound valued ends.


Technology is not a value. Its value depends on how we use it. Indeed,technology may be a utility tool sort of a device, system, or technique that represents the method to the nice life.

Science and technology



Technological processes have three components:-

1)inputs,

2) engine,

3) outputs.

For technology to be novel and useful to us as a utility, the engine must be new and the outputs must have value to us.

We derive usefulness out of this utility based on the quality of that value in relation to our value system.

If the outputs of the processes have relevancy and contribute to the mental object that we have a tendency to habitually use to form alternative utilities that ease our lives, then, the new technology has worth.

Otherwise, it is not a good technology. 
We have seen and possibly used several technologies that we have a tendency to judge to be of no use to us.

What we have a tendency to decision smart and unhealthy technologies ar scaled on our price system

If the process outputs are judged as having contributed to good knowledge in
our value system (moral values), then that technology is judged good and useful.We have seen many such technologies.

 However, we have also seen a myriad
of technologies that return obscurity close to our price systems. These we call bad
technologies.

So all judgments of technology are based on a set of value standards, our moral values.
There are many who will disagree with me in the way I define value, as it is derived from technology. In fact, some argue that this value is subjective.

Others define it as objective. Many say it is intrinsic yet others call it instrumental. we have a tendency to ar language that this worth is personal, hence, moral.

In the end,when we use technology, the value we derive from the technology and the value we use in decision making while using the technology is based on one’s
beliefs and moral value system. 

This value scaling problem in the use of technology haunts all of us in the day- to-day use of technology and even more so in decision making.


Moral Dilemmas, Decision Making,
and Technology:-

Science and technology


Dilemmas in decision making are quite common in our everyday activities. The process of decision making is complex.

It resembles a mathematical mapping of input parameters into output decisions. The input parameters in the decision- making process are premises. Each premise has an attached value.

The mapping uses these values in conjunction with the premises to form associate degree output,which is the decision.

For example, if I have to make the decision whether to walk to church or take the car, the set of premises might include time, parking,exercise, and gas.

 If I take the car, the values attached to the premises are saving time, needing a parking space, not getting any exercise, and buying gas.

However, if I decide to walk, my decision might be based on another set of premises
like: Walking to church one day a week is good exercise, and I will save money by not buying gas.

The mapping operate takes these premises in conjunction with the values and outputs a “logical” call. 

Dilemmas in decision making are caused by one questioning the values attached to one’s premises as inputs to the decision being made.

One’s scaling of values to the inputs may be influenced by a number of factors such as advances in technology and incomplete or misleading information.

Advances in technology:-

Dilemmas are usually caused by advances in technology. Computer technology above all has created additional muddles within the decision- creating method than in the other technology. 

Advances in engineering produce a mess of potentialities that ne'er existed before. Such possibilities present professionals with myriad temptations.

Incomplete or Misleading Information:-

Not having all the information one needs before making a decision can be problematic. 

Consider the famous prisoners’ dilemma. Two people are caught committing a crime, and they are taken to different interrogation rooms before they need an opportunity to coordinate their stories.

During the interrogation, each captive is told that the opposite captive has united to plead guilty on all charges.

Authorities inform every captive that agreeing to plead guilty on all charges because the different captive has done can bring him or her a reduced sentence.

Rejecting the plea will mean that the prisoner refuses to cooperate with the
investigation and will end in he or she receiving the most social control.

Each prisoner has four recourses:

(i) plead guilty while not the friend pleading guilty, which means deserting
a friend;

(ii) refuse to plead guilty whereas the friend pleads guilty, which means betrayal and probably a maximum sentence;

(iii) plead guilty whereas the friend pleads guilty, which suggests light-weight sentences for both of them;

(iv) each refuse to plead guilty and every receives either a light-weight sentence or a most sentence.

Whichever option the prisoners take is risky because they do not have enough information to enable them to make a wise decision.

There are similar situations in professional life when a decision has to be made quickly and not enough information is available.

In such a situation, the professional must take extra care to weigh all potentialities within the input set of premises with their cor-responding values.

Making Good Use of Technology:-


Science and technology


How can we use technology in a nondestructive way to advance human
society? 

Technology has placed at our disposal a multitude of possibilities, many of that we have a tendency to ne'er had before, that are shrouding our daily value- based decision making in confusion and doubt.

Doubt of our own worth system, the system we tend to grew up with. 

Doubts are created because gaps in reasoning between right and wrong has been muddled up because of the many possibilities, many of which are new and we are no longer sure!

An appropriate response to this confusion of reasoning is multifaceted and may include the following solutions:

Formulate new laws to strengthen our basic set of values, which are being rendered irrelevant by technology.

• Construct a brand new ethical and moral abstract framework within which the new laws can be applied successfully.

• Launch a vast education campaign to create society alert to the changing atmosphere and also the impact such associate degree atmosphere has on our basic values.

Nations and communities must have a regulated technology policy. Technology without a policy is dangerous technology. 

We are not calling for a burdensome policy. We are calling for a guided technology policy that is based on a basket of values.

In formulating a policy like this, societies must be guided by the critical needs of their society based on a sound value system. 
Scientists and researchers must also be guided by a system of values.

Strengthening the Legal System:-

In many countries and local governing systems, technology has outpaced the legal system. Many laws on the books square measure in serious want of review and revision. 

Lawyers and judges seriously want grooming to address the new realities of information technology and its rapidly changing landscape.

Legal books and statutes need to be updated.The technology in many courtrooms in many countries needs to be updated in order to handle the new breed of criminal.

Updating the system to fulfill new technology demands can not be done overnight. It is complex.

 It needs a training component that will involve judges, lawyers, court clerks, and every other personnel of the court. 

It also needs associate degree implementation element that involves feat the new technologies for the courtrooms. 

This will involve software and hardware and the,training of the people to use such facilities.



Science and technology


Lastly, and probably the most difficult, is the legislative component. A thorough review of current law is needed to update the relevant laws and to draw up new ones to meet current needs.

Also, since technology is stretching the legal garment and constantly causing tears in the seams, there is a need for a policy to allow quick and effective reaction to new technologies thus relevant and required laws square measure created quickly.